Multilingualism in modern India

by Rajesh Ranjan

India is not only having its geographical-political distinct entity, but it is also a very unique linguistic area. If we are discussing on the condition of Indian languages according to state wise, we find that there is not any language which is purely confined to one language. Even not only bigger languages, also the small languages are having presence in more than one state. Also, in some state the no of language is much more and in some one it is very less. This diversity is the very essence of India.

People living nearby the border of two states, generally know two language. Basically their multilingualism is natural multilingualism. In the same way, tribal community of India know their own tribal language as well the language of the state where they are living. Any person who is bilingual or multilingual by birth, then his/her condition is called Compound Bilingual or multi linguists. Some people due to some cause learn other languages. This type of bilingualism or multilingualism is called co-ordinative Bilingualism/ Multilingualism.

Statistics related to State wise multilingualism in India

1. Assam-            Asamiya, Bangla, Bodo, Karbi, Mishid, Rabha, Dimasha,                 kochh, Kachhari, Deuri, Vishnupriya, Mechh, Lalod,                     Goro, Maar, Hindi.

2. Meghalaya-         Garo, Khasee, Rabha, kochh, Asamiya, Bangla, Nepalee,                 Hindi

3. Tripura-             Bangla, Tripuri, jamatiya, Riyad, Kookee, Chakma, Mug,                 Hindi.

4. Manipur –         Manipuri, takhul, kabue, Thado, Maar,                             Pahate, Mao, vaipe, Jeeu, Mijo, Hindi.

5. Nagaland –         Riyad, Konyad, Mao, Sema, Ambami, Lotha, Sandtam,                 Chad, Jatiyad,Ckakhesad,Redma, Hindi.

6 Mijoram-            Mijo, chakma, Lakher, Riyad, Nepali, Hindi.

7 Arunachal Pradesh-    Miju, Golad, Nishee, Nokte, Monapa,                     Tagin, Badti, Miniyod, Aapatani,                                 Tadsa, Assamesse, Hindi.

8 Sikkim-            Nepali, Lepcha, Bhotia, Hindi.

9 Andhara Pradesh-    Telugu ,Tamil, Kannada, Hindi, Marathi,Oriya,                         Malayalam, Gujarati, .

10. Tamilnadu-        Tamil, Telugu ,Kannada, Malayalam, Hindi, Gujarati,                     Marathi.

11. Kerala-            Malayalam,Tamil, Kannada, Telugu, Hindi, Marathi.

12. Karnataka -        Oriya, Telugu, Hindi, Bengali, Punjabi, Gujarati, Malayalam

13 Jammu-Kashmir-    Urdu, Kashmiri, Punjabi, Hindi

14 Punjab-            Punjabi, Hindi

15 Himachal Pradesh -    Hindi, Punjabi

16 Hariyana-        Hindi, Punjabi

17 Gujarat-            Gujarati, Hindi, Marathi,Punjabi,  Malayalam, Tamil.

18 Maharashtra-        Marathi, Hindi, Gujarati, Kannada, Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam
Punjabi, Bengali.

19 Goa            Konkani, Marathi, Hindi

20 Madhya Pradesh-    Hindi,Telugu, Marathi, Oriya, Bengali, Punjabi, Gujarati,                 Malayalam, Tamil

21 Uttar Pradesh-    Hindi,  Punjabi,Bengali, Marathi, Malyalam

22 Bihar-            Hindi,  Bengali, Oriya, Punjabi,Telugu, Gujarati, Malayalam

23 West Bengal-        Bengali, Oriya, Telugu,  Punjabi, Gujarati, Malayalam, Hindi

24 Orissa -            Oriya, Telugu, Bengali, Punjabi, Gujarati, Malayalam, Hindi

25. Rajsthan -        Hindi, Punjabi, Gujarati, Bengali.

Being the national language Hindi is only language which is having its present all over India. Linguists have divided Hindi region in five sub-language region :

1.Western Hindi: Kadi Boli, Braja Bhasha, Hariyanvi, Kannauji, Bundeli
2.Eastern Hindi:  Awadhi, Bagheli, Chhatisgari
3.Rajsthani Hindi: Marwari, Jaipuri, Mewati, Malawi.
4.Bihari Hindi: Bhojpuri, Magahi, Maithili
5.Pahari Hindi: Garhwali, Kumauoni

In reality, the languages of India, which is spoken by commoner, is not under developed language anymore. If we see in the context of literary and cultural tradition, our languages are still far more developed than the so called rich languages.

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Sahitya Akademi – English

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